General and Laparoscopic Surgery
General surgeons primarily manage diseases of the abdomen, including the stomach, liver, gallbladder, appendix, and small and large intestines. Subspecialties of general surgery include breast, colorectal, endocrine,pediatric, and transplant surgery, and trauma/critical care. Laparoscopic surgery is a new subspecialty focused on minimally invasive approaches, utilizing cameras and small instruments inserted through 3-15 mm incisions. Robotic surgery is evolving from this field. Neurosurgeons, neurointensivists, and trauma surgeons work together closely in managingpatients with brain and spine injuries. Depending on the institution, trauma surgeons may medically manage neurosurgical patients in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU).inal access for neurosurgical patients for shunting procedures.